WTO information on agriculture, including REPORTS from WTO members Video: How to use AGIMS export subsidies is the third pillar. The 1995 agricultural agreement required industrialized countries to reduce export subsidies by at least 36% (in value terms) or by 21% (by volume) over a six-year value. For developing countries, the agreement called for reductions of 24% (in value) and 14% (in volume) over ten years. WTO members made important decisions on agriculture at the WTO Ministerial Conference in Nairobi, Kenya, in 2015. These include the obligation to remove agricultural export subsidies, decisions on public storage for food security purposes, a special safeguard mechanism for developing countries and trade rules for cotton. The agricultural negotiations under the Uruguay Round were not easy, as the broad scope of the negotiations and their political sensitivity inevitably took a long time to reach agreement on the new rules and it took a great deal of technical work to create solid means to formalize commitments in policy areas beyond the scope of previous GATT practice. The agreement on agriculture and the agreement on the application of health and plant health measures were negotiated in parallel and a decision on the possible negative impacts of the reform programme on the least developed developing countries and net food-importing developing countries was also part of the overall outcome. See News on Agricultural Negotiations See Cotton News The Haberler Report of 1958 stressed the importance of minimizing the impact of agricultural subsidies on competitiveness and recommended replacing price support with non-production-related direct additional payments and expected discussions on green subsidies. But it is only recently that this change has become the heart of the reform of the global agricultural system. Noting that commitments made under the reform agenda should be fair among all members, taking into account non-trade issues, including food security and the need to protect the environment; Recalling the agreement that the special and differentiated treatment of developing countries is an integral part of the negotiations and given the negative effects that the implementation of the reform programme could have on the least developed developing countries and net food-importing developing countries, the agreement has been criticized by civil society groups for reducing customs protection for small farmers , an important source of income in developing countries, while allowing rich countries to continue subsidizing agriculture in their own countries. In principle, agriculture is subject to all WTO agreements and agreements on trade in goods, including the 1994 GATT agreements and WTO agreements on issues such as tariff assessment, import authorisation procedures, due diligence, emergency measures, subsidies and technical barriers to trade. However, in the event of a conflict between these agreements and the agricultural agreement, the provisions of the agreement on agriculture apply. WTO agreements on trade in services and trade aspects of intellectual property rights also apply to agriculture.
These agreements provide some flexibility in implementation by developing countries as well as for WTO members (special and differentiated treatment) and least developed countries (LDCs) and net food-importing developing countries (special provisions). In the 1980s, public payments to agricultural producers in industrialized countries generated large crop surpluses, which were unloaded by export subsidies on the world market, causing food prices to fall.